Cancer Trials

Cancer Trials

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Am I at Risk for Breast Cancer?

There is really no way to know for sure if you’re going to get breast cancer. Certain risk factors can make it more likely, but having 1 or more does not necessarily mean that you will get breast cancer. In fact, you can have all the risk factors and never get breast cancer, or you can have no known risk factors and still get the disease.

If you agree with any of the following bolded statements, you may be at an increased risk of developing breast cancer. Some risk factors are out of your control, such as your age or family history. Others, like drinking 1 or more alcoholic drinks a day, or taking hormones, are factors you can control.

Each time you agree with a statement, ask yourself if you are doing all that you can to control that particular risk factor. It may seem difficult, but your efforts can have a big payoff in terms of your health and quality of life. Ask your health care providers and loved ones to help think of ways that you can lower your risk for breast cancer.

Know that researchers continue to study some of these factors to determine how much they can increase your risk for breast cancer. In some cases, more studies are needed to confirm the link to breast cancer.

I’m a woman

Both men and women can get breast cancer. But most of the cases occur in women. Being a woman is the main risk factor for breast cancer.

I’m older than age 50

Age is your next biggest risk factor. The older you are, the more likely you will get the disease. In fact, most breast cancers are found in women older than age 55. Though you can’t do anything to reduce this risk factor, you can avoid those risk factors that are in your control.

I’ve had breast cancer

If you’ve had cancer in 1 breast, you’re at an increased risk of getting it in the other breast. Keep all your follow-up appointments with your health care provider and have yearly mammograms.

A female relative has had breast cancer

If any female relative in your family (including your grandmother, mother, aunt, sister, or daughter) has had breast cancer, you have a higher risk of getting it, too. Your risk doubles if the woman is your mother, sister, or daughter. And it’s even higher if your relative had cancer in both breasts, or if it was diagnosed before she went through menopause. Research shows a genetic link between women in the same family who have breast cancer. If breast cancer runs in your family, you can have genetic testing to find out if you have that abnormal gene. If you do, you can explore options to help prevent the disease. But just because you have the abnormal gene doesn’t mean you’ll get breast cancer. Therefore, it’s best to have genetic counseling first to know whether or not to get tested, and to know what to do after testing. Some women choose to have 1 or both breasts surgically removed. Removing a healthy breast as a preventive measure is called a prophylactic mastectomy. Since surgery carries its own set of risks, talk this option over carefully with your doctor before making a decision.

I have benign breast disease

There are 2 kinds of benign breast disease: nonproliferative and proliferative. Nonproliferative benign breast disease does not increase your risk for breast cancer. But if you have proliferative benign breast disease, your risk for breast cancer increases. Proliferative benign breast disease is an overgrowth of cells lining your ducts or lobules. If the multiplying cells look like normal breast tissue cells, your risk only increases by 1.5 to 2 times. If your cells look abnormal (called atypia), then your risk increases by 3.5 to 5 times. The only way to know if you have benign breast disease is by having a biopsy.

I’m older than age 30 and have never given birth

If you’re older than age 30 and you’ve never given birth to a child, you have a slightly higher risk of getting breast cancer. Evidence shows that your risk decreases the more children you have and the closer in age you have them. However, because so many factors should be considered before having a baby, you may be better off focusing on the other risk factors that you can control.

I take hormone replacement therapy (HRT) drugs

HRT involves taking the hormones estrogen or progesterone, or a combination of the two. If you have taken combination HRT for 2 or more years to relieve postmenopausal symptoms, you may have a greater chance of getting breast cancer. And the longer you’ve taken them, the higher your risk. The good news is that if you stop taking the drugs, your risk should go back down to normal after 5 years. Estrogen alone, which may be given to women who no longer have a uterus, does not appear to raise your risk much, if at all, unless it is taken for a long time (for more than 10 years). Talk with your health care provider about how to gradually stop taking HRT. This will help lessen the side effects that can occur if you stop suddenly.

I started having periods before age 12 or didn’t reach menopause until after age 55

Researchers think that the longer your breast tissue is exposed to estrogen, the more likely it is that you will get breast cancer. If you’re menstruating, it means your ovaries are still producing estrogen. This is a hormone that increases your risk for breast cancer. Therefore, the longer you have been having your period, the higher your risk. 

My chest has been exposed to high-dose radiation

If you have ever been exposed to high-dose radiation in your chest area, you have an increased chance of getting breast cancer. This may be true if you were treated for Hodgkin disease, took part in certain tuberculosis studies, or lived near the site of an atomic blast. And the risk may be even higher if the exposure happened when you were a child. It’s important to remember that this involves high doses of radiation. The small doses used for breast cancer screening, for example, do not increase your risk.

I’m white

If you’re white, you have a higher risk of getting breast cancer than if you’re black, Asian, or Native American. But if you’re black, your risk of dying from the disease is higher than it is for white women. Studies also show that when women from low-risk countries move to a high-risk area (like the United States), their risk for breast cancer goes up. This probably means that environment and lifestyle factors matter more than the genetics of these groups in determining risk.

I’m overweight

This risk factor is complex. Research shows conflicting results about the link between weight and breast cancer. Overall, your risk of getting breast cancer is lower if you maintain a healthy weight with a body mass index below 25. If you’re overweight and you do get breast cancer, the excess weight also affects your chances of being cured. Most health care providers say it’s better to maintain a healthy weight. If you’re overweight, ask your health care provider or a nutritionist for tips on how to get more exercise and eat fewer calories so you can shed pounds. Make an effort to avoid gaining weight after menopause.

I take birth control pills

Studies show that taking birth control pills slightly increases your breast cancer risk compared with women who have never used them. The risk seems to go back to normal over time after the pills are stopped. Women who stopped using birth control pills more than 10 years ago have not been found to have any increased breast cancer risk. Talk with your health care provider about the benefits and risks of taking oral contraceptive pills.

I drink one or more alcoholic drinks a day

Studies show that your risk for breast cancer goes up if you drink just 1 glass of wine or beer or 1 mixed drink a day. Studies also show that the more you drink, the greater your risk. If you do drink, limit yourself to less than 1 drink per day. If you have a family history of breast cancer, you may want to limit your intake even more.

I’m physically inactive

Physical inactivity is another lifestyle factor linked to many cancers, including breast cancer. Getting regular exercise can also help you maintain a healthy weight. This may be particularly helpful in decreasing your risk for breast cancer after menopause.

I eat a diet high in saturated fat

Saturated fat is the kind of fat found in animal products like meat, cheese, eggs, many fried foods, and junk food. Some research has shown a link between eating a diet high in this type of fat and an increased risk of getting breast cancer. However, it’s not clear whether the risk is from the fat or the extra calories in these foods. And other research has shown that foods high in unsaturated fat, like olive oil, fish, and nuts, may actually help protect you from getting breast cancer. More research is needed. In the meantime, it can’t hurt to cut back on foods high in saturated fat, while increasing your intake of fruits and vegetables. These have been shown to protect against cancer.

I have dense breast tissue

Women whose breasts appear on mammograms to have larger areas of dense tissue compared to mammograms of women of the same age, are at increased risk for breast cancer. But people with breast cancer who have dense breast tissue do not have a higher risk of dying than those who do not have dense tissue. 

I took DES when I was pregnant

DES is a drug that was given to some pregnant women in the U.S. between about 1940 and 1971 to help prevent miscarriage. (It is no longer used.) Women who took DES during pregnancy may have a slightly increased risk for breast cancer. Women whose mothers took DES during pregnancy may also have a slightly higher risk. 

Broward Health Medical Center Clinical Trials Program focuses on having available clinical trials to improve cancer care by finding better ways to treat cancer and help cancer patients.

The decision to enroll in a clinical trial is voluntary and one that should be made with the close consultation of a physician.

For further information, please contact the Cancer Research Department:

Medical Hematologist / Oncologists
Radiation Oncologists
Research Nurses & Research Associates

Rowena Dimayuga, RN MSN CCRP
Melissa Hoag, Clinical Research Associate
Donna Stefinsky, RN CCRC 

Clinical Trials List

Updated: July 21, 2014

Brain

RTOG 1122: Phase II Double-Blinded Placebo-Controlled Study of Bevacizumab with or without AMG386 in Patients with Recurrent Glioblastoma or Gliosarcoma
Principal Investigator: Delia Constanza Guaqueta, MD
Status: Actively Recruiting

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Breast

AGENDIA PROMIS: Prospective Study of MammaPrint in Breast Cancer Patients with an Intermediate Recurrence Score (PROMIS)
Principal Investigator: Archana Maini, MD
Status: Actively Recruiting

AMGEN 20060359: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled, Multicenter Phase 3 Study of Denosumab as Adjuvant Treatment for Women with Early Stage Breast Cancer at High Risk of Recurrence (D-CARE)
Principal Investigator: Archana Maini, MD

ACOSOG Z1041: A Randomized Phase III Trial Comparing a Neoadjuvant Regimen of FEC-75 Followed by Paclitaxel plus Trastuzumab with a Neoadjuvant Regimen of Paclitaxel plus Trastuzumab followed by FEC-75 plus Trastuzumab in Patients with Palpable and Operable Breast Cancer
Principal Investigator: Archana Maini, MD

ECOG E2108: A Randomized Phase III Trial of the Value of Early Local Therapy for the Intact Primary Tumor in Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer
Principal Investigator: Barry Berman, MD
Status: Actively Recruiting

ECOG-PACCT1: Program for the Assessment of Clinical Cancer Tests (PACCT-1): Trial Assigning Individualized Options for Treatment: The TAILORx Trial
Principal Investigator: Archana Maini, MD

ECOG 5103: A Double-Blind Phase III Trial of AC followed by Paclitaxel with Avastin or Placebo in Patients with Lymph Node Positive and High Risk Lymph Node Negative Breast Cancer
Principal Investigator: Archana Maini, MD

CALGB 49802: Phase III Study of Adriamycin / Taxotere vs. Adriamycin / Cytoxan in the Adjuvant Treatment of Node Positive and High Risk Node Negative Breast Cancer
Principal Investigator: Luis Barreras, MD

CALGB 9741: A Randomized Phase III Trial of Sequential Chemotherapy using Doxorubicin, Paclitaxel, and Cyclophosphamide or Concurrent Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide Followed by Paclitaxel at 14 to 21 Day Intervals in Women With Node Positive Stage II/IIIA Breast Cancer
Principal Investigator: Luis Barreras, MD

NCCTG N9831: Phase III Trial of Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide (AC) Followed by Weekly Paclitaxel with or without Trastuzumab as Adjuvant Treatment for Women with Her-2 Over-expressing or Amplified Node Positive or High Risk Node Negative Breast Cancer
Principal Investigator: Archana Maini, MD

NSABP B-35: A Clinical Trial Comparing Anastrozole with Tamoxifen in Postmenopausal Patients with Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) Undergoing Lumpectomy with Radiation Therapy
Principal Investigator: Archana Maini, MD

NSABP B-36: A Clinical Trial of Adjuvant Therapy Comparing Six Cycles of 5-Fluorouracil, Epirubicin and Cyclophosphamide (FEC) to Four Cycles of Adriamycin and Cyclophosphamide (AC) in Patients with Node-Negative Breast Cancer
Principal Investigator: Archana Maini, MD

NSABP B-38: A Phase III, Adjuvant Trial Comparing Three Chemotherapy Regimens in Women with Node-positive Breast Cancer: Docetaxel / Doxirubicin / Cyclophosphamide (TAC); Dose-Dense (DD) Doxorubicin/Cyclophosphamide Followed by DD Paclitaxel (DD AC -> P); DD AC Followed by DD Paclitaxel Plus Gemcitabine (DD AC-> PG)
Principal Investigator: Archana Maini, MD

NSABP B-40: A Randomized Phase III Trial of Neoadjuvant Therapy in Patients with Palpable and Operable Breast Cancer Evaluating the Effect on Pathologic Complete Response (pCR) of Adding Capecitabine or Gemcitabine to Docetaxel when Administered Before AC with or without Bevacizumab and Correlative Science Studies Attempting to Identify Predictors of High Likelihood for pCR with Each of the Regimens
Principal Investigator: Archana Maini, MD

PFIZER B3271002: A Phase 3 Randomized, Double-Blind Study of PF-05280014 plus Paclitaxel versus Trastuzumab plus Paclitaxel for the First Line Treatment of Patients with HER2-Postive Metastatic Breast Cancer
Principal Investigator: Archana Maini, MD
Status: Actively Recruiting

SWOG S0307: Phase III Trial of Bisphosphonates as Adjuvant Therapy for Primary Breast Cancer
Principal Investigator: Archana Maini, MD

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Colon

ECOG 5202: A Randomized Phase III Study Comparing 5-FU, Leucovorin, and Oxaliplatin vs. 5-FU, Leucovorin, Oxaliplatin and Bevacizumab in Patients with Stage II Colon Cancer at High Risk for Recurrence
Principal Investigator: Archana Maini, MD

NCCTG N0147: A Randomized Phase III Trial of Oxaliplatin (OXAL) plus 5-Flurouracil (5-FU) / Leucovorin (CF) with or without Cetuximab (C225) after Curative Resection for Patients with Stage III Colon Cancer
Principal Investigator: Archana Maini, MD

Dermatology

E2603: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Phase III Trial of Carboplatin, Paclitaxel and BAY 43-9006 versus Carboplatin, Paclitaxel and Placebo in Patients with Unresectable Locally Advanced or Stage IV Melanoma
Principal Investigator: Archana Maini, MD

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Gastroesophageal

S1201: A Randomized Phase II Pilot Study Prospectively Evaluating Treatment for Patients Based on ERCC1 (Excision Repair Cross-Complementing 1) for Advanced/Metastatic Esophageal, Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction (GEJ) Cancer
Principal Investigator: Archana Maini, MD
Status: Actively Recruiting

Gynecologic

GOG 262: A Phase III Trial Of Every-3-Weeks Paclitaxel versus Dose Dense Weekly Paclitaxel in Combination with Carboplatin with or without Concurrent and Consolidation Bevacizumab (NSC #704865, IND #113912) in the Treatment of Primary Stage II, III or IV Epithelial Ovarian, Peritoneal or Fallopian Tube Cancer and ACRIN 6695: Perfusion CT Imaging to Evaluate Treatment Response in Patients Participating in GOG-0262
Principal Investigator: Archana Maini, MD

Head & Neck

RTOG 1016: Phase III Trial of Radiotherapy plus Cetuximab versus Chemoradiotherapy in HPV- Associated Oropharynx Cancer
Principal Investigator: Marshal Lieberfarb, MD
Status: Actively Recruiting

SOLIGENIX IDR-OM-01: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Escalating, Multicenter Study of SGX942 for the Attenuation of Oral Mucositis in Patients Being Treated with Concomitant Chemoradiation (CRT) for the Treatment of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck
Principal Investigator: Archana Maini, MD
Status: Actively Recruiting

E3303: Phase II Study of C225 (Erbitux or Cetuximab) in Combination with Cisplatin and Definitive Radiation in Unresectable Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck
Principal Investigator: Nicholas Tranakas, MD

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Hodgkin's Disease

CALGB 59905: A Randomized Phase III Trial of ABVD versus Stanford V ± Radiation Therapy in Locally Extensive and Advanced Stage Hodgkin’s disease
Principal Investigator: Luis Barreras, MD

Lung

AMGEN 20070782: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study to Evaluate the Long Term Safety and Efficacy of Darbepoetin Alfa Administered at 500 µg Once Every 3 Weeks in Anemic Subjects with Advanced Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Receiving Multi-Cycle Chemotherapy
Principal Investigator: Archana Maini, MD
Status: Actively Recruiting

ECOG 1505: A Phase III Randomized Trial of Adjuvant Chemotherapy +/- Bevacizumab for Patients with Completely Resected Stage IB (>4cm) -IIIA NSCLC
Principal Investigator: Archana Maini, MD

ECOG 5508: Randomized Phase III Study of Maintenance Therapy with Bevacizumab, Pemetrexed, or a Combination of Bevacizumab and Pemetrexed Following Carboplatin, Paclitaxel and Bevacizumab for Advanced NSCLC
Principal Investigator: Archana Maini, MD
Status: Actively Recruiting

RTOG 0617: A Randomized, Phase III Comparison of Standard Dose (60Gy) versus High Dose (74Gy) Conformal Radiotherapy with Concurrent and Consolidation Carboplatin / Paclitaxel +/- Cetuximab (IND #103444) in Patients with Stage IIIA/IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Principal Investigator: Marshal Lieberfarb, MD

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Multiple Myeloma

CELGENE CC-4047-MM-007: A Phase 3, Multicenter, Randomized, Open-Label Study to Compare the Efficacy and Safety of Pomalidomide (POM), Bortezomib (BTZ) and Low-Dose Dexamethasone (LD-DEX) versus Bortezomib and Low-Dose Dexamethasone in Subjects with Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma (MM)
Principal Investigator: Archana Maini, MD
Status: Actively Recruiting

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Prostate

S1216: A Phase III Randomized Trial Comparing Androgen Deprivation Therapy + TAK-700 with Androgen Deprivation Therapy + Bicalutamide in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Metastatic Hormone Sensitive Prostate Cancer
Principal Investigator: Archana Maini, MD
Status: Actively Recruiting

RTOG 0815: A Phase III Prospective Randomized Trial of Dose-Escalated Radiotherapy with/without Short-term Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Patients with Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer
Principal Investigator: Evan Landau, MD
Status: Actively Recruiting

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Renal

ECOG 2805: Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase III Trial of Adjuvant Sunitinib vs. Sorafenib vs. Placebo in Patients with Resected Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC)
Principal Investigator: Archana Maini, MD

Other

CELGENE CONNECT MDS AND AML: Connect MDS and AML: The Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) and Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Disease Registry
Principal Investigator: Archana Maini, MD
Status: Actively Recruiting

S0702: A Prospective, Observational, Multi-Center Cohort Study to Assess the Incidence of ONJ (Osteonecrosis of the Jaw) in Cancer Patients with Bone Metastases Starting Zoledronic Acid
Principal Investigator: Archana Maini, MD

BHMC 001: A Prospectively Acquired Database of Head and Neck Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy
Principal Investigator: Evan Landau, MD
Status:
Actively Recruiting

CALGB 70604: A Randomized, Phase III Study of Standard Dosing Versus Longer Dosing Interval of Zoledronic Acid in Metastatic Cancer
Principal Investigator: Archana Maini, MD


Please call the Principal Investigator or Study coordinator with any questions or potential subjects.

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