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Breast Cancer Risk Assessment
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women (other than skin cancer). The American Cancer Society reports the breast cancer death rate is declining, probably due to earlier detection and improved treatment. This short assessment will help you determine if you have major risk factors for breast cancer. It is not a complete assessment of all risks. For a complete evaluation of your risks, see your health care provider
Because of your age, your immediate risk for developing breast cancer is very low.
Because of your age, your immediate risk for developing breast cancer is low.
Because of your age alone, your immediate risk for developing breast cancer is slightly higher than for a younger woman.
Because of your age, your immediate risk for developing breast cancer is moderate. However, because you have risk factors other than age (listed below), your immediate risk is higher than others in your age group.
Because of your age alone, your immediate risk for developing breast cancer is high.
Because of your age alone, your immediate risk for developing breast cancer is high. The additional risk factors you have reported (listed below) increase that risk further over a same-age person without risk factors.
Age is the greatest risk factor for developing breast cancer. Children rarely develop breast cancer. In fact, the incidence doesn't begin to rise until around age 17, but even then the incidence is low. Beginning about age 45, the risk begins to rise rapidly..
Age is the greatest risk factor for developing breast cancer. Children rarely develop breast cancer. In fact, the incidence doesn't begin to rise until around age 17, but even then the incidence is low. Between the ages of 45 and 65, your immediate risk of developing breast cancer increases, especially for women who have risk factors other than age. According to the American Cancer Society, about two out of three cases of invasive breast cancer are diagnosed in women ages 55 and older.
Age is the greatest risk factor for developing breast cancer. Children rarely develop breast cancer. In fact, the incidence doesn't begin to rise until around age 17, but even then the incidence is low. Beyond age 45, your immediate risk of developing breast cancer increases, especially if you have other risk factors. These risk factors, especially if they are significant, will put you at increasingly higher risk as you grow older.
Age is the greatest risk factor for developing breast cancer. At age 65 or older, your risk for breast cancer increases with each passing year. According to the American Cancer Society, about two out of three cases of invasive breast cancer occur after age 55, with the majority after age 65. Other risk factors, if they are present, become increasingly important in determining the risk of developing breast cancer in women older than 65.
Age is the greatest risk factor for developing breast cancer. At age 65 or older, your risk for breast cancer increases with each passing year. According to the American Cancer Society, about two out of three cases of invasive breast cancer occur after age 55, with the majority after age 65. Other risk factors become increasingly important in determining the risk of developing breast cancer in women older than 65.
Because you are younger than 17, you have almost no immediate risk of developing breast cancer even if you have other risk factors, listed below. Any risk factors you do have, especially if they are significant, will put you in increasingly higher risk categories as you grow older.
Because you are not yet 45 years old, your immediate risk of developing breast cancer is low even if you have other risk factors, listed below. Any risk factors you do have, especially if they are significant, will put you in increasingly higher risk categories as you grow older.
Your risk factors and their significance, according to this assessment, are listed below. Other risk factors are not covered here. Talk with your health care provider to review all of your risk factors, what can be done about them, and what they may mean in your case.
Risk factors of high significance
Family history of breast cancer
Family history of early onset breast cancer
Personal history of uterine cancer
Personal history of ovarian cancer
Risk factors of moderate significance
Obesity: A BMI of places you in the obese category, which increases your risk moderately.
Drinking alcoholic beverages: The risk for developing breast cancer increases with the amount of alcohol consumed, the American Cancer Society says. If you have no more than one drink a day, your risk rises by only a very small amount. Women who have two to five drinks a day have about 1-1/2 times the risk of women who don't drink.
First childbirth after age 30
Risk factors of mild significance
Ethnicity: Caucasians have an increased incidence of breast cancer when compared with African-Americans, Asians, or Hispanics. However, they have a decreased mortality when compared with the same group.
Ethnicity: African-Americans actually have a lower incidence of breast cancer than Caucasians but are diagnosed later, when the disease is more difficult to treat. As a result, they are more likely to die of the disease.
Ethnicity: Hispanics are less likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer than Caucasian women. However, diagnosis is usually later, when the disease is more difficult to treat. As a result, they are more likely to die of the disease.
Overweight: A BMI of places you in the overweight category, which increases your risk slightly.
Smoking: The American Cancer Society does not consider smoking a significant risk for breast cancer but does recognize that there is conflicting evidence in the medical literature. Because smoking is clearly associated with numerous cancers, it is a good idea to do all you can to quit smoking.
First childbirth after age 30
Menarche (onset of menstruation) before age 12
Menopause after age 55
Your risk factors
You have indicated no risk factors for breast cancer.
You have indicated no risk factors for breast cancer other than age.
About risk factors and preventive screening
Some risk factors, such as age, family medical history, and no full-term pregnancies, cannot be changed. However, others—such as weight, smoking, and alcohol consumption—can be modified. If you have risk factors that are modifiable, you should consider making lifestyle changes to reduce those risks. You should avoid alcohol, quit smoking, lose weight if you need to, and exercise regularly. If you have children, breast-feeding them for several months can reduce your breast cancer risk. After menopause, you should avoid hormone therapy. In addition, a healthy diet and adequate exercise may reduce breast cancer risk.
A large portion of the women with breast cancer have no risk factors. Having risk factors does not mean that you will develop breast cancer. But having risk factors is a good reason to discuss them with your physician and schedule preventing screening.
Whether you have risk factors or not, it is important to follow the national breast cancer screening guidelines. Here are recommendations from the American Cancer Society (ACS) for screenings:
- The ACS recommends yearly screening for all women ages 40 and older. Women should talk with their doctors about their personal risk factors before making a decision about when to start getting mammograms or how often they should get them. (A mammogram is an X-ray of breast tissue. The X-ray is taken by compressing the breast firmly between a plastic plate and a cassette that contains special X-ray film.
- The ACS recommends clinical breast exams (CBEs) at least every three years for all women in their 20s and 30s. The ACS recommends annual CBEs for women ages 40 and older..
- The ACS says BSEs are an option for women 20 and older as a means of familiarizing themselves with their breasts so they can notice changes more easily. Talking with your doctor about the benefits and limitations can help you decide if you should start performing BSEs.
This information is not intended as a substitute for professional health care. Always consult with a health care provider for advice concerning your health. Only your health care provider can determine if you have breast cancer.
This assessment is not intended to replace the evaluation of a health care professional.
Broward Health Receives Grant to Help Women Navigate Breast Cancer Treatment
Find out more details about the Breast Cancer Navigator Program »
Broward Health provided 29,380 mammograms last year, nearly 3,000 of them for women who had no insurance and could not afford to pay. While a mammogram may be essential in detecting abnormalities, a diagnosis is meaningless without follow-up. That follow-up – particularly for poor women – can be daunting.
A grant of nearly $150,000 from the Florida Division of the American Cancer Society will help Broward Health set up a new Breast Cancer Patient Navigator Program to ensure that more women living in poverty will get the medical care they need after an abnormal mammogram or a diagnosis of breast cancer. The goal is to ensure half of the participants are African-American, Caribbean or Hispanic.
A “navigator” case manager will provide one-on-one assistance to women of any age in navigating the complexities of not only scheduling, testing and treatment, but with things like childcare, transportation, translation services and understanding medical terminology as well.
The navigator case manager will oversee the woman’s care throughout treatment at the Comprehensive Cancer Centers at Broward Health facilities (Broward Health Medical Center and Broward Health North). If the woman doesn’t show up for an appointment, stops treatment, or becomes unreachable after two weeks, the case manager will go to her home to check on her and find out why she hasn’t kept her appointments. The case manager will then work with her to get her back on track. When cancer goes into remission, the case manager will continue to monitor her health and quickly set up doctor appointments and further treatment if needed.
The navigator program is dedicated to dismantling barriers faced by medically underserved women with breast cancer, increasing access to healthcare services and ultimately improving quality of life.
Breast Cancer Patient Navigator Program Participants
September 2006 – July 2008
The American Cancer Society awarded Broward Health the Breast Cancer Patient Navigator Program Grant in September 2006 to navigate medically underserved women of all ages (living below 200% of the Federal Poverty Level who receive an abnormal mammogram), from diagnostic mammogram to breast cancer survivorship. The two (2) year grant award provided for one (1) Registered Nurse Breast Cancer Patient Navigator to remove the barriers to care by providing one-on-one case management once breast cancer is diagnosed.
The program allows for:
- Earlier identification/intervention
- Greater outreach to our community
- A broader range of services
- Decreased treatment variability
- Increased effectiveness of care
- 282 female and 2 male patients, ages 15 thru 85
- 57 dependent children
- Treatment and diagnostic sites – 1-49 miles from patients' home
- Transportation – 60% of the patients were brought to the health care site by friend or family; 34% by private car; 6% used taxi service or public transportation provided by Broward Health
Race/Ethnicity (Claritas 2007)
37% - Black Non Hispanic
51% - Black Non Hispanic
23% - Hispanic
18% – Hispanic
19% - White Non Hispanic
25% - White Non Hispanic
9% - Haitian
3% - Asian
7% - Other
3% - Other
2% - Asian
1% - Portuguese
- 284 - patients referred from Broward Health sites and the Broward County Health Department's Breast & Cervical Cancer Initiative
- 109 - patients that did not meet guidelines (i.e. had insurance, were enrolled in another program, received care at another facility, refused services)
- 63 - patients disenrolled from the program (i.e. eligibility changed, moved, changed providers, chose homeopathic treatment and/or refused treatment, treatment complete and patients are following up with primary care physician for a yearly mammogram)
- 37 - patients in the program with no diagnosis of breast cancer that are being followed.
- 75 - patients with diagnosis of breast cancer – majority of the cases is invasive ductal carcinoma. (61 ductal, 5 intra ductal, 4 multi focal, 3 lobular, 1 mucinous & 2 multi centric)
1 - stage 0
7 - stage I
31 - stage II
18 - stage III
6 - stage IV
12 - in staging process
- Broward Health hospitals and Community Health Service sites, i.e., Broward Health Medical Center, Broward Health North, Broward Health Imperial Point, and Broward Health Coral Springs.
- Broward Health Website
- Florida Breast Cancer Resource Network
- Broward County Health Department through its Breast & Cervical Cancer Initiative (BCCI)
- Other community organizations, i.e., Living Water clinics, Light of the World, churches, etc.
- Private physician offices, friends, and family
Benefits of Program
Access & Compliance
Patients adhered to their scheduled appointments. In the event of a scheduling conflict, the Breast Cancer Patient Navigator was contacted for resolution.
Transportation and certification process has been expedited because of intervention by Breast Cancer Patient Navigator.
97% of the patients adhered to the treatment plan (3% sought alternative treatment or chose treatment elsewhere).
Care & Treatment
Recommended diagnostic procedures:
- Spot magnification / compression
- Stereo tactic biopsy
- Ultrasound biopsy
- CT Scans, Mir's & PET Scans
- Echocardiograms, Lab work, X-rays and ultrasounds
Recommended treatment procedures:
- Hormonal treatment
97% of the patients adhered to scheduled diagnostic procedures
Current status of patient treatment
29 – in treatment (chemo/radiation)
30 – in post treatment
6 – refused treatment
6 – in work-up
1 – out of service area
3 – out of country
Knowledge and Education
Educational components made available to all the patients:
- Initial education packet
- American Cancer Society Breast Cancer Guidelines
- National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Booklet
- Chemotherapy and You
- Triple Touch
- Knowledge & Education
- Demand Mailings – specific topics of interest
- Support groups and education classes
- Look Good, Feel Better
- Gilda's Club
- Reach to Recovery
- Community Church Support Group