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COPD: More of Us Are Out of Breath
The average person takes 12 breaths every minute while at rest. It's a reflex--you don't pay attention unless there's a problem. However, a rising number of us literally can't catch our breath because of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is a group of diseases that cause airflow blockage and breathing-related problems.
The main types of COPD are emphysema and chronic bronchitis. These two conditions account for most cases of COPD, which affects millions of Americans. COPD is the third leading cause of death in America. According to the American Lung Association, in the last eight consecutive years, more women than men died from COPD.
Emphysema and chronic bronchitis often appear at the same time and usually require similar treatment. Because they develop at the same time, your doctor may have difficulty distinguishing one from the other. Asthmatic bronchitis, another form of COPD, develops when a person with asthma develops a chronic cough after exposure to an irritant.
COPD develops slowly, causing shortness of breath that worsens over time. Because the onset is gradual, you may not think you have a problem.
In the lungs of a person with COPD, tiny breathing sacs called alveoli become scarred. The breathing tubes--called bronchioles--thicken and narrow, and extra mucus develops in the airways. You find it harder to breathe out because air becomes trapped in the lungs.
Emphysema and bronchitis differ from each other in several ways. In emphysema, the walls of the alveoli become inflamed. As the disease progresses, the damage to the alveoli increases and they lose their elasticity. Pockets of dead air form, making it difficult to exhale.
In chronic bronchitis, the structure of the airways changes so that airflow is diminished. A person with chronic bronchitis has a chronic cough and produces excess mucus.
Smoking and COPD
Smoking is the main cause in nine out of 10 cases of COPD.
Other causes include exposure to secondhand smoke, fumes, dust, and other environmental irritants.
What makes smoking so bad for the lungs? Cigarette smoke contains irritants that cause the airways to become inflamed. The inflammation over the long term damages lung cells, boosting the risk not only for COPD, but also for lung cancer.
Not all smokers develop COPD. Researchers think that those who do have genetic factors that make their lungs more susceptible to damage. One genetic condition that has been identified is a deficiency in the protective enzyme alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT). People with this deficiency can develop emphysema even if they don't smoke. They develop emphysema at a much younger age than most smokers.
Other irritants that can increase the risk for COPD include toxic chemicals, such as silica or cadmium, industrial smoke, and dust. Occupations that can expose workers to these irritants include miners, grain farmers, and cooks.
The broad symptoms of COPD include shortness of breath that worsens over time, a cough that produces phlegm, and wheezing.
Symptoms of emphysema usually appear in heavy smokers by their mid-50s. They become short of breath with even light exertion, but they may only have a minor cough. By the time symptoms appear, people with emphysema have lost a significant portion of their normal lung tissue. People with an enzyme deficiency tend to develop emphysema between ages 30 and 40. Late symptoms include rapid breathing with much difficulty even while at rest.
Symptoms of chronic bronchitis include coughing with excess mucus and frequent bacterial infections. To be diagnosed with chronic bronchitis, you must have a cough that lasts for at least three months of the year and continues over the course of two consecutive years. The other main symptom is shortness of breath, but it is not as severe while at rest as with emphysema. As the disease progresses, symptoms often force a person to sleep sitting up. Females are more than twice as likely to be diagnosed with chronic bronchitis as males.
Treatment can make COPD easier to live with, but the only way to change the course of the disease is to stop smoking and avoid exposure to secondhand smoke and other environmental irritants.
Doctors see most cases of COPD in people ages 60 and older. The third cause of COPD breathing trouble, asthma, most often occurs in childhood. Affecting 23.3 million Americans in 2008, asthma causes its telltale wheezing when air has trouble passing through swollen, narrow air passages. Medication can open airways and decrease swelling.
Don't take breathing for granted. Talk with your doctor if you notice any of these signs:
Coughing that lasts longer than the cough you usually get with a cold. A cough that lasts longer than that also could be acute bronchitis. Coughing with acute bronchitis can last up to a month.
Coughing or trouble breathing when you move. You should be able to climb a flight of stairs without coughing or being short of breath.
Excess sputum or phlegm. If you're producing the same amount of sputum as you might for a bad cold, but it continues for weeks or a month, see your doctor.
Wheezing. This can be a sign of asthma. The classic signs of an asthma attack are coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.
A feeling of tightness or fullness in the chest.
Colds that often spread to the chest. People with COPD and asthma face a greater risk for infection in the bronchial tubes and lungs.
Increasing trouble breathing around certain irritants. These include smoke, dust, pollen, and air pollution.
Here at the Center for Wound Care and Hyperbaric Medicine, we are pleased to let you know that as part of your treatment you may be a candidate to receive hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT).
The following information is about HBOT and the important guidelines which must be followed carefully. This course of treatment can be highly beneficial, but the patient must be committed to success and knowledgeable about the process. We encourage you to provide our staff with any questions you might have.
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy: Simple And Effective
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is a treatment in which the patient breathes 100 percent oxygen inside a pressurized chamber for approximately two hours. The therapy quickly delivers high concentrations of oxygen to the bloodstream, accelerating the healing rate of wounds and is effective in fighting certain types of infections. It also stimulates the growth of new blood vessels, improving circulation, and helping to prevent future problems.
When You Arrive At The Center
After an initial consultation and examination at the Center, you will be ready to begin your therapy. When you arrive, you will receive complete instructions regarding your treatment. Before starting, you will change into a garment provided by the Center.
What To Expect During Treatment
Once you are comfortably positioned inside the chamber, the pressure will gradually increase and temperature will gently warm. You may experience fullness in your ears as a result of the increased pressure. The technician will instruct you in ways to help clear the pressure and relieve any discomfort. Most treatment sessions in the chamber last approximately two hours. While undergoing treatment, you may watch TV or DVDs, simply relax, or even sleep. The technical is in constant attendance and communication with you via an intercom system.
Getting Ready For Your Visit
For safety reasons there are certain items not allowed inside the hyperbaric chamber. Please do no wear or bring the following into the chamber during your treatment:
- Hairspray/hair oils
- Nail polish
- Alcohol or petroleum based products
- Metallic items (such as jewelry, watches, and coins)
- Flammable materials
- Hearing aids
- Cell phones
- Paper, Magazines, Books, or Newspaper
**Ask your hyperbaric physician for advice on wearing contact lenses during treatment. You should also refrain from smoking or the use of any tobacco products over the entire course of therapy. Tobacco use will prolong or even prevent healing of a wound site due to its effect on the blood vessels in your body.
If You Are Sick Or On Medication
You should inform the staff and the Center if you have a cold or cough, the flu, sore throat, chills, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. Alert the staff to any medications you are taking, or changes in medication during the course of your treatment. If you are diabetic, please eat properly and continue to take your prescribed medication to control blood sugar level. Your blood sugar level will also be checked during each visit to the Center.
The Possibility of Side Effects
You may experience temporary vision changes that should return to normal a few weeks after your therapy is completed. Our physicians recommend that you not change the prescription of your eyewear during the course of your therapy. Some patients experience fatigue during treatment. This is completely normal.
Other Important Information
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is usually administered on an outpatient basis. If you drive, you may drive yourself to the Center for therapy, and should allow up to two and one half hours for each visit. Medicare and most health care plans reimburse for hyperbaric oxygen therapy for "currently accepted indications." Our courteous and professional staff is available to assist you with all of your personal insurance issues.
We look forward to serving you. Please contact a member of our staff with any other questions you may have regarding your therapy at 954-776-8920.